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Smart Cities: Electricity Grid

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Patent 10804702


Issued 2020-10-13

Self-organizing Demand-response System

Energy loads, sources or batteries exchange mathematical models with each other to form clusters of devices that together provide a service (self-reliance, frequency control, etc.) to a grid operator. Models are exchanged before or after forming clusters; a particular model is used to control its own device and is also used by another load/source to influence its control policy. Heuristics and an optimization technique (using models) are used to form a cluster of devices. Exchanging models obviates the need for a central entity to directly control loads/sources, and the need to exchange real-time data between loads/sources, providing resilience against communication failure. A service manager (demand-response aggregator) sends a service or technical constraints to loads/sources to form clusters on their own. Negotiation between manager and clusters occurs to form consensus on a response. Each device in a cluster is controlled by its own control policy which may depend upon the model of another device in the cluster. If communication is lost the clusters continue to implement the service.


Classification


Much More than Average Length Specification


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10 Independent Claims

  • Independent Claim 1. A method of controlling an energy device, said method comprising: receiving at each energy device in a pool of energy devices a service context from a central entity that commandseach energy device to provide said service to a grid operatorapplying a heuristic at a first device agent executing on a first computer representing a first energy device in order to identify a second energy device in said poolreceiving at saidfirst computer a power model of said second energy device identified by said heuristic, wherein a power model of said first energy device exists on said first computerperforming an optimization on said first computer to calculate a value of said firstand second energy devices working together to provide said serviceforming a cluster of said first and second energy devicesand outputting a first control action from said first device agent to provide a first power level to said first energy devicethat partially depends upon said power model of said second energy device and that provides said service to said grid operator.

  • Independent Claim 12. A system for controlling an energy device, said system comprising: a central entity computera pool of energy devices, each of said devices receiving a service context from said central entity computer that commands each energy device toprovide said service to a grid operator, said pool including a first energy device and a second energy devicea first device agent executing on a first computer representing said first energy device arranged to apply a heuristic in order to identifysaid second energy device in said pool, wherein a power model of said first energy device exists on said first computer, said device agent being further arranged to receive a power model of said second energy device identified by said heuristic, toperform an optimization on said first computer to calculate a value of said first and second energy devices working together to provide said service, and to output a first control action from said first device agent to provide a first power level to saidfirst energy device that partially depends upon said power model of said second energy device and that provides said service to said grid operator.

  • Independent Claim 13. A method of controlling an energy device in a self-reliance mode, said method comprising: applying a heuristic at a first device agent executing on a first computer representing a first energy device in order to identify a second energydevice in a pool of energy devices that provides energy complementary to said first energy deviceforming a cluster of said first and second energy devices in which a net energy to or from said cluster is minimizedreceiving at said first computer apower model of said second energy device, wherein a power model of said first energy device exists on said first computerand outputting a first control action from said first device agent to provide a power level to said first energy device thatpartially depends upon said power model of said second energy device.

  • Independent Claim 25. A system for controlling an energy device in a self-reliance mode, said system comprising: a pool of energy devices, each of said devices having a service context that commands each energy device to operate in a self-reliance mode, saidpool including a first energy device and a second energy devicea first device agent executing on a first computer representing said first energy device arranged to apply a heuristic in order to identify said second energy device in said pool thatprovides energy complementary to said first energy device, to form a cluster of said first and second energy devices in which a net energy to or from said cluster is minimized, wherein a power model of said first energy device exists on said firstcomputer, said device agent being further arranged to receive a power model of said second energy device identified by said heuristic, and to output a first control action from said first device agent to provide a first power level to said first energydevice that partially depends upon said power model of said second energy device and that minimizes said net energy.

  • Independent Claim 26. A method of providing a service to a grid operator, said method comprising: forming a plurality of clusters of energy devices out of a pool of energy devices, each cluster being formed by exchanging models between energy devices of saideach cluster and optimizing said each cluster using said models to provide said servicesending a request from a service manager to said each cluster for a bid that partially provides said service, said each bid being based upon a current multipliercomparing a total of all bids from said clusters to a bid from said service manger to provide said servicedetermining that said total of all bids from said clusters is close enough to said service manager bidand each energy device of each of saidclusters implementing a control policy based upon said optimizing of said each cluster, wherein said service is provided.

  • Independent Claim 34. A system for providing a service to a grid operator, said system comprising: a plurality of clusters of energy devices, each cluster being formed by exchanging models between energy devices of said each cluster and optimizing said eachcluster using said models to provide said service, wherein each energy device of each of said clusters being arranged to implement a control policy based upon said optimizing of said each cluster, wherein said service is providedand a service managercomputer arranged to send to each of said clusters a request for a bid to partially provide said service and a current multiplier, to receive said each bid based upon said current multiplier from said each cluster, to compare a total of all of said bidsfrom said clusters to a bid from said service manger to provide said service, to determine that said total of all bids from said clusters is close to said service manager bid, and to direct said energy devices to implement said each control policy basedupon said each bid from said clusters.

  • Independent Claim 35. A method of providing a service to a grid operator using a distributed architecture, said method comprising: forming a plurality of clusters of energy devices out of a pool of energy devices, each cluster being formed by exchanging modelsbetween energy devices of said each cluster and optimizing said each cluster using said models to provide said serviceexecuting a plurality of service manager processes, each service manager process representing one of said clusters and executing on acomputer local to one of said clustersimplementing a peer-to-peer consensus-seeking technique in order to iteratively request bids from said clusters using said service manager processes, wherein each of said bids partially providing said service, andwherein said each bid being based upon a current multipliercomparing a total of all bids from said clusters to a bid from one of said service manager processes that represents a service manger to provide said servicedetermining that said total ofall bids from said clusters is close enough to said service manager bidand each energy device of each of said clusters implementing a control policy based upon said optimizing of said each cluster, wherein said service is provided.

  • Independent Claim 43. A system of providing a service to a grid operator using a distributed architecture, said system comprising: a plurality of clusters of energy devices, each cluster being formed by exchanging models between energy devices of said eachcluster and optimizing said each cluster using said models to provide said service, wherein each energy device of each of said clusters being arranged to implement a control policy based upon said optimizing of said each cluster, wherein said service isprovidedand a plurality of computers, each computer representing one of said clusters and executing a service manager process, wherein each service manager process being arranged to implement a peer-to-peer consensus-seeking technique in order toiteratively request and receive bids from other of said service manager processes to partially provide said service based upon a current multiplier, to compare a total of all of said bids from said clusters to a bid from one of said service managerprocesses that represents a service manger to provide said service, to determine that said total of all bids from said clusters is close to said service manager bid, and to direct said energy devices to implement said each control policy based upon saideach bid from said clusters.

  • Independent Claim 44. A method of controlling an energy device, said method comprising: receiving at each energy device in a pool of energy devices a technical constraint of one of said devices or of a power grid from a central entity that commands each energydevice to satisfy said technical constraintapplying a heuristic at a first device agent executing on a first computer representing a first energy device in order to identify a second energy device in said poolreceiving at said first computer apower model of said second energy device identified by said heuristic, wherein a power model of said first energy device exists on said first computerperforming an optimization on said first computer to calculate the ability of said first and secondenergy devices working together to satisfy said technical constraintforming a cluster of said first and second energy devicesand outputting a first control action from said first device agent to provide a first power level to said first energydevice that partially depends upon said power model of said second energy device and that satisfies said technical constraint.

  • Independent Claim 45. A system for controlling an energy device, said system comprising: a central entity computera pool of energy devices, each of said devices receiving a technical constraint from said central entity computer that commands each energydevice to satisfy said technical constraint, said pool including a first energy device and a second energy devicea first device agent executing on a first computer representing said first energy device arranged to apply a heuristic in order toidentify said second energy device in said pool, wherein a power model of said first energy device exists on said first computer, said device agent being further arranged to receive a power model of said second energy device identified by said heuristic,to perform an optimization on said first computer to calculate the ability of said first and second energy devices working together to satisfy said technical constraint, and to output a first control action from said first device agent to provide a firstpower level to said first energy device that partially depends upon said power model of said second energy device and that satisfies said technical constraint.