In August 2014, California, the most populous US state, had become the first to implement a statewide ban on single-use plastic bags. Five years later, New York, the fourth most populous US state, is expected to become the second. The ban, which would go into place next March, is expected to be passed as part of the state's 2020 budget deal, which Gov. Andrew Cuomo and state legislative leaders said they had agreed to. Other government bodies, such as that of Maryland and the European Parliament, are also using their legislative power to regulate companies since they are not voluntarily replacing plastics and foam products with environmentally-friendly alternatives. Further highlighting the notion that this is a public interest is the fact that companies are not the only entities innovating in this space. Universities and federal agencies, such as the Department of Agriculture, are filing patent applications on biodegradable packaging as well.